By Hanan Frenk, Reuven Dar (auth.)
Nicotine is sort of universally believed to be the key issue that motivates smoking and impedes cessation. gurus reminiscent of the healthcare professional normal of america and the Royal university of Physicians within the united kingdom have declared that nicotine is as addictive as heroin and cocaine. This ebook is a critique of the nicotine dependancy speculation, in response to a serious evaluation of the learn literature that purports to end up that nicotine is as addictive drug. The evaluation is predicated on a re-assessment of greater than seven-hundred articles and books in this topic, together with animal and human experimental experiences, results of `nicotine substitute therapies', and lots of different proper resources. This evaluate concludes that on current facts, there's each cause to reject the commonly accredited concept that nicotine has a tremendous function in cigarette smoking. A severe exam of the factors for drug dependancy demonstrates that none of those standards is met by means of nicotine, and that it truly is more likely that nicotine in reality limits instead of allows smoking.
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Extra resources for A Critique of Nicotine Addiction
If they are delivered every time the animal presses the bar, the ratio is referred to as ‘Fixed Ratio 1 (FR1);’ if at every other time, ‘Fixed Ratio 2 (FR2),’ etc. 1 Drugs as Positive Operant Reinforcers: The Self-Administration Paradigm The positive reinforcing value of drugs for animals can be tested, in principle, by reversing the logic of operant reinforcement procedures. When a scientist trains a rat to press the lever for food, he or she has a priori knowledge that food is rewarding to rats.
2. Addiction, compulsion, and habit 23 development has been reflected in the evolvement of the 12-step treatment programs for addictions. Initially conceived for alcohol (Alcoholics Anonymous, or AA) and later for narcotic addiction (NA), they now include not only Marijuana Anonymous and Cocaine Anonymous, but also Gamblers Anonymous, Overeaters Anonymous, Sexaholics Anonymous, Workaholics Anonymous, and even Debtors Anonymous (for people who have a compulsion to incur unsecured debts). In summary, the new behavioral definitions of addictions describe a behavioral pattern, not properties of drugs.
It is clear from this table that, apart from tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis (hashish and marijuana), drugs were tried by less than 8 percent of the sample, and less than 1 percent of the population of Amsterdam reported using these drugs recently (last month). 1. Prevalence of drug use in Amsterdam in 1994. This Table and Table 2 are adapted with permission from the authors561. 1 shows that even without counting caffeine (which was not included in this survey), the vast majority of Dutch are psychoactive drug users.
A Critique of Nicotine Addiction by Hanan Frenk, Reuven Dar (auth.)